The EU visa code Article 16 says students do not need to pay for visas in the EU. The important bits:
The visa fee shall be waived for applicants belonging to one of the following categories:
(b) school pupils, students, postgraduate students and accompanying teachers who undertake stays for the purpose of study or educational training
6. In individual cases, the amount of the visa fee to be charged may be waived or reduced when to do so serves to promote cultural or sporting interests as well as interests in the field of foreign policy, development policy and other areas of vital public interest or for humanitarian reasons.
And yet many of us were made to pay for it. It's difficult to trust Europe like this.
Be aware that residence permits (separate from the visa) can be exorbitant. The Danish residence permit cost 427 Euro. Bank Austria charged 14.50 Euro to make the money transfer. So, it's a total of 441.50 Euro.
At this point, I do not recommend coming to Europe for studies unless you receive full scholarship that covers all of these hidden fees. Or unless you're filthy rich.
On top of that, the Danish consulate in Vienna is quite unfriendly. We asked various questions via email and their reply was:
Unfortunately, it is not possible for us to guide you regarding your specific case or to discuss or include any personal and confidential information via e-mail.
Ours were rather general questions, like whether or not we needed a visa or other supplementary document for the Schengen area if all we got from the consulate was a residence permit. Needless to say, we are wholly unimpressed with Europe and Denmark in particular at the moment.